Respiratory system is the combination of lungs along with upper respiratory tract, bronchi, bronchioles and alveoli. All these components work together for getting the oxygen in the body and throwing away the carbon dioxide from the body. Any disease that affects any of the respiratory system organs is called as respiratory disease. In these diseases apart from the organs nerves and muscles of the respiratory system also get affected. These diseases could be mild like cold and flu till life threatening such as pulmonary embolism and lung cancers. Some of the common diseases affecting the functionality of the respiratory system are:
Pneumoconiosis: This is an abnormal condition in which dust is accumulated in the lungs. In this condition toxic particles are trapped inside the lung causing the decolouration and blockage in the lung nerves. This is also called as black lung disease in which the name is also given according to particular material like asbestosis.
Epistaxis: In this disease the nose starts bleeding that could be due to any internal injury or infection. The bleeding of the nose affects the overall oxygen intake in the body.
Cystic Fibrosis: This is a heredity disease in which not only the lungs but other body organs that produce mucous are also affected. The lung of the patients suffers severe infections and due to severe thickening of the mucous the scarring of the lung occurs. The increased and abnormal mucous production also leads to digestive enzyme pill intake in the patients for managing the upset stomach.
Emphysema: This is also known as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in which the progressive destructions of the lung sacs occur. Loss of respiratory membranes slows down the rate of oxygen exchange. This disease is mostly the outcome of long term smoking habits.
Inflammatory lung disease: These are the diseases that affect he structuring and functionality of the lungs and most common sign of this disease is increased neutrophil counts in the body.
Restrictive Lung disease: This disease is characterised by lung compliance that hinders the appropriate lung expansion in the body. Lungs get stiff in this disease due to loss of its expansion capacity.
Upper Respiratory Tract Infections: The most common upper respiratory tract infection is cold but based upon the infection in specific organ it is also called as tonsillitis, sinusitis, pharyngitis, laryngitis and otitis media.
Lower Respiratory Tract Infections: The common lower respiratory tract infection is pneumonia which is the infection of lung that is caused by bacteria. Tuberculosis is one of the most common causes for pneumonia and apart from bacteria, virus and funguses can also cause infections.
Small Cell Lung Cancer: This is a highly malignant cancer that arises from the lung. It is an undifferentiated neoplasm that is primarily composed of primitive appearing cells.
Lymphoma: It is a kind of cancer that appears in white blood cells and then it can circulate within the body affecting the major respiratory organs like lungs and alveoli’s. Respiratory distress or dyspnoea is a common symptom of Lymphoma.